Data Sources

Field phenotyping research sites

Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC), Arizona

The Maricopa field site is located at the the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center and USDA Arid Land Research Station in Maricopa, Arizona. At this site, we have deployed the following phenotyping platforms.

  • The Lemnatec Scanalyzer Field System is the largest field crop analytics robot in the world. This high-throughput phenotyping field-scanning robot has a 30-ton steel gantry that autonomously moves along two 200-meter steel rails while continuously imaging the crops growing below it with a diverse array of cameras and sensors.

Lemnatec Field Sensors



Field of View

Technical Data

Hyperspectral Imager

Inspector VNIR


380-1000 nm @ 2/3 nm resolution

Hyperspectral Imager

Inspector SWIR


900-2500 nm @ 2/3 nm resolution

Thermal Infrared


25° x 19°

Thermal Sensitivity < 50mK @ 30C

Range: -40 to 150 C

Dedicated NDVI (1 down, 1 up)

Skye Multispectral Radiometer

CH1: 650 +/- 3nm

CH2: 800 +/- 3nm

Bandwidth: 10nm +/- 3nm

Dedicated PRI Sensor

Skye Radiometer

CH1: 531nm +/- 3nm

PRI = Photochemical Reflectance Index

CH2: 570 +/- 3nm

Bandwidth: 10nm +/- 3nm

PAR Sensor

Quantum SQ-300


Spectral Range 410 to 655 nm

Spectrometer (downwelling radiance)

Ocean Optics STS-Vis

Range: 337-824 nm @ 1/2 nm

Laser Scanners (1 down, 2 side view)

Custom Frauhofer 3D

0.5m width

Resolution: 0.3-0.9 mm

Stereo Camera (1 down, 2 side view)

GT3300 C


Active Reflectance

Crop Circle ACS430P

Bands: 670, 730, 780 nm

Fluorescence Measurement

Lemnatec PSII

25° x 19°

PSII Fluorescence Response

Source: 635nm x 4000umol/m2/s

Environmental Sensors

Thies ClimaSensorD

Wind, Air T, Humidity

Pressure, Light, Precipitation

Open Path CO2 Sensor

GMP 343

Range: 0-1000 ppm

  • The PhenoTractor is fitted with a sensor frame that supports a real time kinematic (RTK) satellite navigation antenna, a sonar transducer, an infrared temperature (IRT) scanner, and three GreenSeeker crop sensing systems.

  • UAV data: weekly flights with RGB and multispectral cameras

  • Manually Collected Field Data - Data will are collected manually using standard field methods. These measurements are used to calibrate and validate phenotypes derived from sensor-collected data.

Controlled-environment phenotyping

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Missouri

The Bellwether Foundation Phenotyping Facility is a climate controlled 70 m2 growth house with a conveyor belt system for moving plants to and from fluorescence, color, and near infrared imaging cabinets. This automated, high-throughput platform allows repeated non-destructive time-series image capture and multi-parametric analysis of 1,140 plants in a single experiment.


Genomic data includes whole-genome resequencing data from the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Alabama for 384 samples for accessions from the sorghum Bioenergy Association Panel (BAP) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data from Kansas State University for 768 samples from a population of sorghum recombinant inbred lines (RIL).